Saturday, December 7, 2019

How Toxic Waste Affects Our Natural Environment Essay Example For Students

How Toxic Waste Affects Our Natural Environment Essay Canada and all of the developed countries in the world produce somekind of toxic waste(s). It doesnt matter whether its a chocolate barwrapper or a canister of highly radioactive plutonium, theyre potentiallydangerous to us and/or our natural environment unless properly disposed of. Toxic waste is defined as any waste that is hazardous to human healthor to our natural environment. According to the Institute of ChemicalWaste Management, about 15% of our garbage is classified as toxic, and only85% (approximately) of that is disposed of properly. The rest is eitherillegally dumped or accidentally mixed up with non-toxic garbage. That 15%may not seem like a lot, but when you consider the millions of tons oftoxic waste that we produce every year, that 15% is enormous. TheEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that we produce one ton oftoxic wastes for every single person living in Canada every year. Thatmeans that the 15% represents about 4.2 million tons of toxic waste. Toxic wastes which are dumped in improper sites can seep intounderground water supplies and contaminate huge areas. If the land that isintoxicated supports plant life, most of the plants and trees will die off. If the area is lived on by humans, it could cause serious illness or death. For example, an area by Niagara Falls (US side) was used during the 1930sby a chemical company to dump its wastes. Most of them were hazardous,and the containers that held the chemicals later (after the company hadgone out of business) began to leak. The chemicals spread for mileskilling off plants and causing cancers and deadly diseases in humans. Included in these wastes was a chemical called dioxin one ounce of itused under the right circumstances was enough to kill off everyone inliving in Toronto. One of the most popular places to dump toxic wastes is in the oceans. People figured that the oceans were so huge that garbage would justdisappear, and sink to the bottom. Well, they were wrong. Chemicalshave turned up in dead whale bodies and dead fish in high enoughconcentrations to kill people. Medical wastes such as used needles andvials of blood (some carrying the AIDS virus) have washed up along theAtlantic coast and in one of the Great Lakes. Mutated and disfigured fishas well as other water animals have washed up dead or been caught byfishermen. The list of stories goes on, and its still growing. Canada and the USA have created laws and regulations to try to stop theillegal dumping of toxic wastes and the destruction of our environment. TheUS has created a multi-billion dollar fund called SuperFund to try andclean up areas that have been contaminated. Canada is also working alongthose lines. The government has made a prioritized list of recognisedhazardous dump sites, and is forcing the company that owns the land to payfor the clean-up of the area. If the company no longer exists, or theexact origin of the waste is unknown, the government will pay for theclean-up. Some toxic wastes can actually been turned into something useful, or inother words recycled. For example, several kinds of metals can berecycled. Lead and silver (both are heavy metals, which are classified astoxic wastes) are both recycled and used again. About ? of the lead usedin the country is recycled, and about ? of the silver is recycled. Other toxic wastes can be chemically transformed into new products. .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 , .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 .postImageUrl , .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 , .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96:hover , .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96:visited , .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96:active { border:0!important; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96:active , .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96 .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc64af9ef90d9138f2e17000df2bc9c96:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Most Dangerous Game EssayThis is done by adding chemicals to the waste, which causes it to changeinto something new. Philadelphia and Chicago transform sewage sludge intofertilizer, which is put to use on farms. A huge pile of toxic waste looms over Canada. This waste is not theproduct of some Natural disaster like a tidal wave or a hurricane. It is aman-made pile of deadly garbage that threatens our very existance. Who isresponsible for this pile? The answer, is us. We are the people who buythe cheap food which was grown with the help of chemical pestisides. Weare the people who demand the electricity created by the nuclear powerplants. We are our own worst enemies. Pogo, a comic strip character who Ilearned about last year in english once said We have met the enemy, andhe is us.

Friday, November 29, 2019

1879 1890 Essays - Films, Ibsen Family, A Dolls House,

1879 1890 HENRIK IBSEN'S A DOLL'S HOUSE CONTENTS CONTENTS SECTION............................ SEARCH ON THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES............................. IDOLAUTH A Doll's House THE PLAY The Plot.......................................... IDOLPLOT The Characters.................................... IDOLCHAR Other Elements Setting...................................... IDOLSETT Themes....................................... IDOLTHEM Style........................................ IDOLSTYL Form and Structure........................... IDOLFORM THE STORY......................................... IDOLSTOR A STEP BEYOND Test and Answers.................................. IDOLTEST Term Paper Ideas and other Topics for Writing..... IDOLTERM Hedda Gabler THE PLAY The Plot.......................................... IHEDPLOT The Characters.................................... IHEDCHAR Other Elements Setting...................................... IHEDSETT Themes....................................... IHEDTHEM Style........................................ IHEDSTYL Form and Structure........................... IHEDFORM THE STORY......................................... IHEDSTOR A STEP BEYOND Test and Answers.................................. IHEDTEST Term Paper Ideas and other Topics for Writing..... IHEDTERM A DOLL'S HOUSE AND HEDDA GABLER The Critics....................................... IDOLCRIT Advisory Board.................................... IDOLADVB Bibliography...................................... IDOLBIBL AUTHOR_AND_HIS_TIMES THE AUTHOR AND HIS TIMES (IDOLAUTH) - On a chilly April day in 1864, Henrik Ibsen arrived at the docks in the Norwegian capital of Oslo (then called Christiania). The young man was a failure. The theater he'd run had closed, and none of his own plays were successful. He had a wife and a young son to support, but all his possessions had been auctioned off two years before to pay his debts. He'd applied for a grant from his native country, Norway, but was turned down. Disillusioned by his country and society, Ibsen, together with his wife and son, boarded a ship and left Norway, figuratively slamming the door behind him. Fifteen years later, a similarly disillusioned Nora Helmer would slam the door on stage at the end of A Doll's House, helping to change the course of modern drama. Ibsen had become disillusioned very early. In 1836, when he was eight years old, his wealthy parents went bankrupt. They were forced to move from town to a small farm. All of their old friends deserted them, and they lived for years in social disgrace. Although young Henrik appeared quiet and withdrawn, his deep, bitter anger at society would occasionally escape in the scathing caricatures he would draw or in tirades against young playmates. His sole happiness seemed to come from reading books and putting on puppet plays. Ibsen didn't like his own family any more than he liked the "proper" society that shunned them. His domineering father was an alcoholic, while his quiet mother found comfort in religion. This blend of overbearing husband and submissive wife makes repeated appearances in his plays, most notably in Brand, in A Doll's House, and in Ghosts, After he left his parents' home at sixteen in 1844, he never went back, even years later when he got word that his mother was dying. Hoping eventually to study medicine, Ibsen became a druggist's apprentice in Grimstad, a small Norwegian village. But he still felt like an outsider, a feeling that would dog him all his life and find expression in many of his plays. (It didn't help his social standing when he fathered an illegitimate son by a servant girl ten years older than he. Some feel that it was this unwanted child that reappears in many of his plays as a lost or murdered child. In A Doll's House, the nursemaid gives away her illegitimate child.) But Ibsen found he wasn't alone in his contempt for those who controlled society. He became friends with a boisterous group of young artists who specialized in political satire. By 1848, a spirit of political unrest was sweeping Europe. Rebellions against monarchy flared in many countries. This spirit of revolution was intoxicating for Ibsen and his friends. Royalty and aristocracy seemed on their way out; the people were coming into their own. Two years later, Ibsen moved to Oslo to attend the university but failed to complete the entrance examinations. He was so caught up in politics and writing, however, that he really didn't care. After all, modern society seemed to be at a crossroads, and the world offered infinite possibilities. But things began to go wrong. The revolutions of 1848 faltered and finally were crushed. Artists and politicians alike lost their idealism. The world of infinite possibilities didn't really exist. Years later, Ibsen would use the experiences of this period in his plays. Certain of his characters (like Nora in A Doll's House and Lovborg and

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Frankenstien

In a series of letters, Robert Walton, the captain of a ship bound for the North Pole, recounts to his sister back in England the progress of his dangerous mission. Successful early on, the mission is soon interrupted by seas full of impassable ice. Trapped, Walton encounters Victor Frankenstein, who has been traveling by dog-drawn sledge across the ice and is weakened by the cold. Walton takes him aboard ship, helps nurse him back to health, and hears the fantastic tale of the monster that Frankenstein created. Victor first describes his early life in Geneva. At the end of a blissful childhood spent in the company of Elizabeth Lavenza (his cousin in the 1818 edition, his adopted sister in the 1831 edition) and friend Henry Clerval, Victor enters the university of Ingolstadt to study natural philosophy and chemistry. There, he is consumed by the desire to discover the secret of life and, after several years of research, becomes convinced that he has found it. Armed with the knowledge he has long been seeking, Victor spends months feverishly fashioning a creature out of old body parts. One climactic night, in the secrecy of his apartment, he brings his creation to life. When he looks at the monstrosity that he has created, however, the sight horrifies him. After a fitful night of sleep, interrupted by the specter of the monster looming over him, he runs into the streets, eventually wandering in remorse. Victor runs into Henry, who has come to study at the university, and he takes his friend back to his apartment. Though the monster is gone, Victor falls into a feverish illness. Sickened by his horrific deed, Victor prepares to return to Geneva, to his family, and to health. Just before departing Ingolstadt, however, he receives a letter from his father informing him that his youngest brother, William, has been murdered. Grief-stricken, Victor hurries home. While passing through the woods where William was strangled, he catche... Free Essays on Frankenstien Free Essays on Frankenstien In a series of letters, Robert Walton, the captain of a ship bound for the North Pole, recounts to his sister back in England the progress of his dangerous mission. Successful early on, the mission is soon interrupted by seas full of impassable ice. Trapped, Walton encounters Victor Frankenstein, who has been traveling by dog-drawn sledge across the ice and is weakened by the cold. Walton takes him aboard ship, helps nurse him back to health, and hears the fantastic tale of the monster that Frankenstein created. Victor first describes his early life in Geneva. At the end of a blissful childhood spent in the company of Elizabeth Lavenza (his cousin in the 1818 edition, his adopted sister in the 1831 edition) and friend Henry Clerval, Victor enters the university of Ingolstadt to study natural philosophy and chemistry. There, he is consumed by the desire to discover the secret of life and, after several years of research, becomes convinced that he has found it. Armed with the knowledge he has long been seeking, Victor spends months feverishly fashioning a creature out of old body parts. One climactic night, in the secrecy of his apartment, he brings his creation to life. When he looks at the monstrosity that he has created, however, the sight horrifies him. After a fitful night of sleep, interrupted by the specter of the monster looming over him, he runs into the streets, eventually wandering in remorse. Victor runs into Henry, who has come to study at the university, and he takes his friend back to his apartment. Though the monster is gone, Victor falls into a feverish illness. Sickened by his horrific deed, Victor prepares to return to Geneva, to his family, and to health. Just before departing Ingolstadt, however, he receives a letter from his father informing him that his youngest brother, William, has been murdered. Grief-stricken, Victor hurries home. While passing through the woods where William was strangled, he catche...

Friday, November 22, 2019

The ways children and adults may respond to media content that Essay

The ways children and adults may respond to media content that contains explicit material - Essay Example These programs show objectionable and socially offending content including promiscuity, violence, drug abuse and occultism among others. This paper examines the complaints that objectionable media content has generated, emphasizing on critical analysis of the linkage between the contents and the objections raised by the society. Complaints to objectionable content Various media contents have generated negative criticism from the society. Some of the complaints originate from particular segments of the society while others elicit widespread criticism. In a research study investigating the reactions of the society to objectionable media content, Stephenson (2007) identified religion, race, and culture in addition to sexual orientation as the major factors determining how particular media content is received in the society. In American society, the minority groups have been raising concerns about how their image is portrayed in the media. In the movie industry for instance Adler, et al( 2007) noted that most African American males play violent and vulgar roles that portray them as hardcore criminals with an inclination of abusing hard drugs. In addition, many television programs focusing on black people portray the negative side such as poverty, crime and chronic disease infection in addition to broken and unhappy families. These programs have recently fallen under heavy criticism because they hardly show achievements or positive side of the black people in the community. The negative media publicity of the minorities, especially in developed countries has been attributed by Bushman and Cantor (2003) as the leading cause of reinforcing crime, drug abuse and other social problems, among the minority groups. In addition, they promote racial prejudice, where a particular race is regarded with scorn, suspicion and mistrust. Besides negative depiction of African Americans, portrayal of people from East Asian countries such as Japan and china in the media is equally bias ed compared to white actors. A study conducted by Stephenson (2007) established that most movies with male actors from oriental countries portray them as extremely violent and cold hearted with exemplary martial arts skills. Similarly, female actors from these countries are portrayed as delicate, weak and sexually attractive. This perception creates an impression that Asian females are incompatible with their violent, cold hearted and inhuman counterparts in romantic relationships. Sexually explicit and pornographic programs are some of the most heavily criticized media content in all segments of the society. In extremely conservative societies and religious groups, media programs that broadcast scanty dressing or behavior with sexual overtone are not allowed (Adler, et al 2007). Pornographic content is considered as the epitome of sexual immorality in most societies. Currently, restricting access to pornographic materials to the young people is among the top priorities in most coun tries. Sexually explicit media contents are attributed to promoting promiscuity and other adverse sexual behavior, such as pedophilia, rape and homosexuality. Effect of objectionable content on behavior High prevalence of violent crime, promiscuity, drug abuse and other social disorders have been credited to the negative influence of

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The Capital Buffer and Capital Planning-Banks Essay - 1

The Capital Buffer and Capital Planning-Banks - Essay Example According to this article, FINMA categorizes different financial institutions into different groups based on their total material goods, possessions under management, fortunate and required own funds. Pillar 2 describes the limits for capital buffers in line with categorization. The support sets the capital adequacy requirements in a digressive manner that depends on the size of the institution and its complexity. These limits described by this support include the capital ratio that is applicable to establish the capital adequacy of an institution. The other limit is the capital ratio that needs an immediate action according to the supervisory law. The pillar claims that all financial institutions need to improve the quality of its financial status the help to meet the capital adequacy target of the whole system. Another trait common to most of the financial institutions includes an inability to fulfill the capital buffer target. The author claims that an organization can be permitte d to fail to comply with the capital adequacy target upon lack of notification. These organizations are advised to inform the FINMA in advance. The company should also explain the date of meeting the compliance and the method of complying with the capital adequacy target.

Monday, November 18, 2019

Project Assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Project Assessment - Essay Example Heseltine, the former deputy prime minister, criticized the cost-benefit analysis of the HS2 high-speed railway line. He even suggested that the expected cost of  £42.6 billion could be reduced by  £10 billion. The comment came after the heightened debate about the certainty of the estimated benefits of the HS2 project. Heseltine also pointed out that the analysis did not consider consequential growth in the project these included later expansion to connect London and Birmingham in 2026, and Manchester and Leeds by 2033. This attracted undying criticism from many quarters. However, the government was insistent that the benefits the project will bring outweighs the project’s cost. One of the latest criticisms was that the government overestimated the value of time that people travelling for business would save for short journeys. The assumptions at the time did not consider that a person could still work on transit using their laptops or other mobile devices. This has seen the time savings on business travel cut down by about a third (Mason & Watt 2013).

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Esterification of 4-methyl-2-pentanol and Acetic Acid

Esterification of 4-methyl-2-pentanol and Acetic Acid Joseph Nuernberg Esterification of 4-methyl-2-pentanol and Acetic Acid by Reflux and Distillation and Characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Abstract: The objective of this lab was to successfully synthesize an ester from an alcohol and acetic acid. This experiment used 4-methyl-2-pentanol with excess acetic acid to produce (1,3-dimethylbutyl) acetate as seen in Figure 1. The mixture of acetic acid with 4-methyl-2-pentanol and sulfuric acid was refluxed, extracted, distilled and identified using IR spectroscopy. The ester had a fruity smell when obtained. The mass of the final product was 0.582g which gave a 34.6% yield. The results obtained indicated that the final product attained was the ester (1,3-dimethylbutyl) acetate due to the similar bond groups of C=O and sp3 C-H. The reason why the percent yield was low was because the nature of the reaction itself formed ether and ester and some product was lost through extraction. For future experiments, the process must be done a lot quicker in order to ensure the least amount of product evaporates. Introduction: Often in chemical labs, esters are artificially synthesized in order to produce an imitation of a flavor. An ester can be synthesized by the reaction of an alcohol with a carboxylic acid. In this experiment, (1, 3,-dimethylbutyl) acetate was formed through excess acetic acid and 4-methyl-2-pentanol as seen in Figure 1. The limiting reagent in this reaction is 4-methyl-2-pentanol so the theoretical yield of the ester product is dependent on 4-methyl-2-pentanol. Figure 1: Reaction of 4-methyl-2-pentanol with excess acetic acid For this reaction, the reflux will be utilized. Heat is applied with a boiling chip, to allow the reaction to occur. The vapor rises and escapes from the round bottom flask and is then cooled by the water condenser. The vapor turns back into a liquid and drips back into the bottom flask. In order to remove certain compounds, the synthesis involved extraction to isolate compounds. The denser layer or the aqueous layer will be at the bottom and can be removed with a pipette. The product of ether and ester was distilled to isolate the ester because esters have lower boiling points than the ether. In distillation, the substance with the lower boiling point evaporates and reaches the water condenser. The cool temperature allows the vapor to change states from gas to liquid which forces the liquid to drip back down the into the Hickman head due to gravity. In this reaction, the (1, 3,-dimethylbutyl) acetate was isolated from an unknown ether by distilling into the Hickman head. An IR spect rum of the final product is conducted to determine the desired product by comparing the bond groups of the given values. If the IR peaks and bonds are the same as the given, then the purified product would be the ester. A percent yield will be calculated to assess the amount of ester produced. Procedure: First, obtain an empty round bottom flask and find the mass. Add about 1.5mL of 4-methyl-2-pentanol in the flask and reweigh. With the 3mL of glacial acetic acid added, add sulfuric acid with a boiling chip. Conduct reflux with the apparatus conducted in previous labs with a water condenser attached to cool the reaction. Heat the apparatus for 60 to 70 minutes. Cool the reaction mixture and while stirring, add 2-3 mL of 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate until carbon dioxide formation ceases. Transfer mixture and shake hard. Remove the aqueous layer and repeat the separation technique two more times. Remove as much water from the organic layer by adding small amounts of sodium sulfate and let the reaction stand for 10-15 minutes. After a week, transfer the reaction with the ether and ester into a vial and conduct distillation. Conduct distillation for 15 minutes at around 180 to 200 oC. Obtain and mass the final product. Conduct IR of starting reactants and products. Clean up stations and calculate the percent yield. Results and calculations: Table 1: Table of masses during experiment Theoretical yield for (1,3-dimethylbutyl) acetate = 1.68g of Percent yield: x 100% x 100%= 34.6% IR: Figure 2: IR before distillation Figure 3: IR after distillation Table 2: Values of IR for ester (1,3-dimethylbutly) acetate after distillation Discussion and Conclusion: For this experiment, the ester (1, 3-dimethylbutyl) acetate was synthesized from acetic acid and 4-methyl-2-pentanol. However, this is not a one reaction pathway because of the tetrahedral intermediate prevalent in esterification. The addition of the acetic acid leads to a more reactive electrophile. This causes a tetrahedral intermediate in which there are two equivalent hydroxyl groups. Then one of the hydroxyl groups is eliminated, a process known as tautomerism. This then gives water and ester as the final products. The reaction was successful produced from reflux but problems arose during the second component of this experiment, distillation. The ester also had a very distinct fruity smell. This reaction is refluxed because heat acts as a catalyst for the reaction. In the reaction pathway, the temperature is increased, allowing more geometrical collisions with the products and requires lower activation energy. This can be seen as an example of the Maxwell-Boltzmann curve. This was done uniformly by using the aluminum block at around 110 oC. After reflux occurred, a distillation apparatus was used in order to purify the ester from the ether. The boiling chip was added in reflux and distillation in order to ensure that the reaction did not overheat and burn the reaction. Boiling chips are often made from carborundum (carbon and silicon) which are chemically inert and allows sharp edges for bubbles to form which will not overheat the system. The substances in the reaction are allowed to boil more calmly rather than rapid boiling causing splatter and ruining the experiment. The water condenser was used for both in order to cool down the reaction in order to prevent burning of the reaction and ensuring that the product in the vapor state turned back into liquid state. The reason why anhydrous sodium bicarbonate was added was to ensure that any leftover water was absorbed and the remaining layer contained only the organic compounds. This was done a total of three times to ensure that minimal water was left, but some of the product leaked when shaken. The purpose of distillation is to separate compounds based on their boiling points. The reaction mixture that contained ester and ether was to be distilled in order to obtain the ester in the Hickman head. However, after letting the reaction stand for a week, most of the ether evaporated and the mixture was mostly ester. This explains why during distillation, the mixture in the conical vial disappeared as most or all went into the Hickman head. This can be seen in Figures 2 and 3. The IR of before and after distillation have similar values, peaks, and the exact functional groups which indicates that the mixture contained only the ester. The IR spectroscopy of after distillation shows that there is a C=O bond around 1735.27 cm-1, and a sp3 C-H bond around 2959.19 cm-1 which indicates that the compound shown is indeed an ester and that the objective was met since ester do have C=O bonds around 1750 cm-1 and sp3 C-H bonds around 2900 cm-1 . Ideally, the distillation process should be us eful in isolating the pure product, by allowing the ester molecules to be in a gaseous phase. Equilibrium will be established and allows the molecules to form back into a liquid phase in the Hickman head, but in this experiment distillation was not necessary. This just caused more chances of losing the ester by not fully attaining all the liquid from the Hickman head or by evaporating. The results yielded a 34.6% yield which suggested that there were errors within the reaction. One major reason as to why the yield was low was because of the nature of the reaction itself. The ether and ester in the conical vial was left to stand for a week. Because the ether had a lower boiling point than ester, most or all of the ether evaporated due to high volatility at room temperature. In addition, the ester also has a high volatility but lower than the ether because of the structure and the strength of the intermolecular forces. The ester has two oxygen atoms whereas the ether has one oxygen resulting in lower van der Waal forces. The ether was created as a byproduct which affected the maximum amount of yield of ester produced. Therefore, not all the reaction occurred to form an ester because during that time there were compounds that hindered the maximum amount of yield formed by forming a pathway for the ether. This was from the sulfuric acid reaction mechanism to produce an ether. The sulfuric acid dissociates into a proton and a bisulfate ion which forms with the OH group of the alcohol. The alcohol’s oxygen is protonated which forms an oxonium ion. The ion decomposes to carbocation and water and the carbocation reacts with another alcohol group to form another oxonium ion. The ion loses a proton to stabilize and forms an ether. If a stronger alcohol, perhaps 1-hexanol was used, a higher yield would be attained because the stronger intermolecular forces allows the reaction to have lower volatility and the ester and ether formed would also evaporate less. Because there are weaker van der Waal forces in the (1, 3-dimethylbutyl) acetate because of the lower carbon chains, more of the product was evaporated and lost. In order to ensure that a higher yield is attained, the reflux and distillation process must be done back to back or a lot quicker before the ester and ether evaporates at room temperature. Also an alcohol with a longer carbon chain s hould be used as stronger intermolecular forces allow more ester to form. While transporting the organic layers and further extraction, some of the product was lost. Even though this source of error is minimal, there were some product lost along the way by transporting through vials which affected the yield of the final product. Reflux is an effective technique that allowed Fischer esterification to occur. Distillation is a very useful technique, but should not be relevant when one of the substances evaporates due to high volatility. For future experiments, the reaction must be done much quicker in order to ensure that the least amount of ether and ester evaporates and is lost throughout the process and more precise instruments can be used to extract the organic layer. IR should still be used to discern the identity of the product. Because of the nature of the reaction itself, a yield close to the theoretical is very difficult to attain, a realistic approach would be around 60% yield. Work Cited: MSDS of (1,3-dimethyl butyl) acetate. http://www.chemicalbook.com/ChemicalProductProperty_EN_CB8373308.htm (accessed November 7, 2014). MSDS of 4-methyl-2-pentanol. http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9926088 (accessed November 7, 2014). Padias, Anne.Making the Connections. Hayden McNeil, 2011.